Blood acidity




The Soil theory 
Nature cure 
Health v medicine



About cellsalts  

Symptoms are nature's warning signs 

Combination remedies   


Bowel cleansing 

Going raw 

Virtues of bicarb 

Pure bloodstream (lack of toxemia)


Blood purification 

Calcium sulphate - the blood purifier

Calcium doses for horses 

Sodium v table salt 

Articles - silica  


The soil theory 

Soil theory v germ theory 

150 years of hidden knowledge 


Seven stages of disease 

The 16 physiological laws of life 


Blood acidity 

Euroamericanhealth - acidity, pleomorphism

** Is the Cause of Cancer a Common Fungus?
The bicarb treatment 



Nature cure  

The retracing process 

Colon cleansing 

Bach flower remedies  

Australian bush flower remedies 


If I had cancer ...




Health vs medicine  

History of homeopathy  

Suppression of cures 

Rockefeller Drug Empire  

Pharmaceutical business with disease  

CODEX (worldwide supplement ban), WTO treaty overrides US law  

Eve Hillary's excellent CODEX expose  

Pan debacle  


Ghostwritten articles  







Toxemia ] Pleomorphism ] Orthopathy ] [ Blood acidity ] Superbugs & superweeds ] euroamericanhealth ]

Acidity2 ]


** See also acidity at euroamericanhealth link 


Blood pH should be 7.4

I first learned about the term, blood acidity from nature cure guru, Paul Bragg's books in my youth. Blood acidity is not to be confused with acidity of the digestive system - two totally different things. 

As a result of normal metabolism processes, food is used as fuel and is burned up, while some foods produce an acid residue and some an alkaline residue. Blood acidity occurs when the normal pH balance of the blood veers towards the acid end of the scale.

Paul Bragg used to talk about the evils of acidity and how it was caused by a diet high in such foods as meat, eggs, white sugar and flour - as opposed to fruit and vegetables which give an alkaline residue. Apparently each acid attack has a detrimental and cumulative effect on the overall health of the body.

"Acidity is a somewhat loose term indicating that the blood, or one or more of the secretions, is less alkaline than it should be. This excess of acid gives rise to many distressing symptoms. There may be gastric disturbance, irritation of the skin and mucous membranes, impoverishment of the blood, palpitation of the heart, twinges of rheumatism, headaches on top of the head with a sense of fullness, a persistent feeling of tiredness and other symptoms of disturbed metabolism. 

"Whenever signs of acidity make their appearance the principal remedy, Sodium phosphate (nat phos) should be given - irrespective of any other treatment which may be indicated - as this acid state, if allowed to persist, will hamper the action of other cell salts.

  • Sodium Phosphate, the acid neutraliser
  • Sodium sulphate which removes poison charged fluids from the cells
  • Silica which breaks up the accumulation of crystalline and calcified deposits around the joints and tissues
  • Magnesium phosphate - burning, tasteless eructions, flatulence, belching."  

--   the Biochemic Handbook
by JB Chapman & Edward L Perry


There is an article on acidity at the Healthresearchbooks website -

The article explains the importance of maintaining the correct blood acidity and how failure to do so has a major effect on health. While not familiar with the strategy used to reduce acidity in this way, no doubt it works.

The macrobiotic method for reducing blood acidity is with something called gomisio which consists of roasted sesame seeds and sea salt.


Nature cure - Miracles of Alkalizing Diet

The human body is composed of various organs and parts, which are made up of tissues and cells. These tissues and cells are composed of 16 chemical elements.

The balance or equilibrium of these chemical elements in the body is an essential factor in the maintenance of health and healing of disease. The acid-alkaline balance plays a vital role in this balanced body chemistry. All foods, after digestion and absorption, leave either an acid or alkaline ash in the body depending on their mineral composition. The normal body chemistry is approximately 20 per cent acid and 80 per cent alkaline. This is the acid-alkaline balance.

In normal health, the reaction of the blood is alkaline and that is essential for our physical and mental well-being. The preponderence of alkalis in the blood is due to the fact that the products of the vital combustions taking place in the body are mostly acid in character. Carbohydrates and fats form about nine-tenths of the normal fuel of the body. In normal health, this great mass of material is converted into carbon dioxide gas and water. Half of the remaining one-tenth fuel is also converted into the same gas and water. This huge amount of acid is transported by the blood to the various points of discharge, mainly the lungs. By virtue of alkalinity, the blood is able to transport the acid from the tissues to the discharge points.

Whenever the alkalinity of the blood is reduced, even slightly, its ability to transport the carbon dioxide gets reduced. This results in the accumulation of acid in the tissues. This condition is known as acidosis or hypo-alkalinity of the blood. Its symptoms are hunger, indigestion, burning sensation and pain in the pharynx, nausea, vomiting, headache, various nervous disorders and drowsiness. 

Acidosis is the breeding ground for most diseases. Nepthritis or Bright’s disease, rheumatism, premature old age, arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure, skin disorders and various degenerative diseases are traceable to this condition. It seriously interferes with the functions of the glands and organs of the body. It also lowers the vitality of the system, thereby increasing the danger of infectious diseases.

The main cause of acidosis or hypo-alkalinity of the blood is faulty diet, in which too many acid forming foods have been consumed. In the normal process of metabolism or converting the food into energy by the body, various acids are formed in the system and in addition, other acids are introduced in food. Whenever there is substantial increase in the formation of acids in the system and these acids are not properly eliminated through the lungs, the kidneys and the bowels, the alkalinity of the blood is reduced, resulting in acidosis.

Other causes of acidosis are depletion of alkali reserve due to diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera etc., accumulation of carbon dioxide in asphyxia and anoxia as in circulatory and pulmonary diseases and accumulation of acetone bodies resulting from starvation, vomiting and diabetes millitus.

Acidosis can be prevented by maintaining a proper ratio between acid and alkaline foods in the diet. Certain foods leave alkaline ash and help in maintaining the alkalinity of the food, while others leave highly acid ash and lower the alkali reserve of the blood and tissue fluids to a very large extent. Eggs do the same but less strongly than meats. Cereals of all kinds, including all sorts of breads are also acid-forming foods, though much less than meats. All fruits, with exceptions like plums and prunes, and all green and root vegetables are highly alkaline foods and help to alkalinize the blood and other tissue fluids.

Thus, our daily diet should consist of four-fifth of alkaline-forming foods such as juicy fruits, tubers, legumes, ripe fruits, leafy and root vegetables and one fifty of acid-forming foods containing concentrated proteins and starches such as meat, fish, bread and cereals. Eating sensibly in this manner will ensure the necessary alkalinity of the food which will keep the body in perfect health.
Whenever a person has acidosis, the higher the ratio of alkaline forming foods in his diet, the quicker will be the recovery. Acids are neutralised by alkalines. It is, therefore, imperative that persons suffering from various ailments are given adequate alkaline ash foods to offset the effects of acid-forming foods and leave a safe margin of alkalinity.

The most agreeable and convenient means of alkalizing the blood are citrus fruits and fruit juices. The alkalizing value of citrus fruits are due to large percentage of alkaline salts, mainly potash, which they contain. Each pint of orange juice contains 12 grains of potassium, one of the most potent of alkalis. Lemon juice contains nine grains of the alkali to the pint and grape seven grains.

Diet in Disease
In the diet during disease, breakfast may consist of fresh fruits, lunch may comprise raw vegetables with acid and sub-acid fruits, and for dinner raw and cooked vegetables, or light starchy vegetables like beet, carrot, cauliflower, egg-plant and squashes may be taken. Sweet fruits may be added to this diet after seven days.

Foods are classified as acid-producing or alkaline-producing depending on their reaction on the urine. Calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium present in foods contribute to the alkaline effect, while sulphur, phosphorous and chlorine contribute to the acidic effect. Depending on the pre-dominating constituents in a particular food, it is classified as acid-forming or alkaline-forming.

The effect of food stuffs upon the alkalinity of the blood depends upon their residue which they leave behind after undergoing oxidation in the body. It is an error to presume that because a food tastes acid, it has an acidic reaction in the blood. For instance, fruits and vegetables have organic acids in combination with soda and potash in the form of acid salts. When the acids are burnt or utilised in the body, the alkaline soda or potash is left behind. Hence the effect of the natural fruit acids is to increase the alkalinity of the blood rather than reduce it.

Based on the above observations, the following charts show the common foods with acid and alkaline ash :

A - Foods Leaving An Acid Ash
(One-Fifth Class)

Barley, eggs, bananas (unripe), grain foods, beans, lentils, bread, meats, cereals, nuts except almonds, cakes, oatmeal, chicken, peas, confections, rice, corn, sugar, chocolate, sea foods, coffee, tea

B - Foods Leaving An Alkaline Ash
( Four-fifths class )

Almonds, melons, apples, milk, apricots, onions, banana (ripe), oranges, beets, parsley, cabbage, peaches, carrots, pears, cauliflower, pineapple, celery, potatoes, coconuts, pumpkins, cottage cheese, radishes, cucumbers, raisins, dates, spinach, figs (fresh and dry), soyabeans, grapes, tomatoes, lemons, turnips, lettuce



You are alkaline -

This section will discuss what is meant by acid and alkaline. This means alkaline forming foods will be discussed. Also, you will learn what being acidic means.

Your blood is slightly alkaline Remember pH? Where 0-7 is acid, 7-14 alkaline. This is where we are going to use this. Your blood has a pH of 7.4. This means the blood is slightly alkaline. For the rest of this book, I will just refer to you a being alkaline. Metabolism usually creates acids. Most foods, after being metabolized (burned to fuel your body), create acids.

Protein creates uric, sulfuric and phosphoric acids. Carbohydrates and fats, while burning mostly to carbon dioxide and water, also create acetic and lactic acids. The key word is acids. Remember, you are slightly alkaline. Acids have to be neutralized and eliminated for you to maintain your alkaline blood pH of 7.4. The liver and the kidney have a limited capacity

The liver and kidneys have a limited capability to neutralize and eliminate a certain amount of acids. It is estimated that the liver and kidneys can clean up about 8 units a day. One pound of meat can generate as much as 18 units of uric acid. If the liver and kidneys can only handle 8 of the 18 units of uric acid, who or what does the rest? The answer, minerals.

How your body maintains a pH level with minerals. Your body uses minerals to keep you alkaline Minerals combine with the acids to create harmless salts, which can be eliminated through the kidneys, without damage. Salts can also be eliminated through the wall of the large intestine. Remember, you are alkaline. To keep you alkaline, your body uses minerals to combine with acids, creating harmless salts that can be eliminated. 

The alkalizing minerals used to maintain blood pH 

It is not so important to remember all you can about each mineral or what part of the body uses each mineral ... just remember the names of the 5 alkalizing minerals. These minerals are used keep you alkaline. 

  • Calcium 

  • Potassium

  • Sodium

  • Magnesium 

  • Iron 

  • [and silica]

The acid forming minerals 

These minerals are still needed by the body, but are acid forming. A diet should have much more alkalizing minerals then acid forming minerals. The body still needs these minerals. The acid forming minerals are: 

  • Sulfur 

  • Phosphorus 

  • Chlorine 

  • Iodine 

Alkaline forming foods help keep you alkaline All food has a pH level. For example, take a lemon, that has a pH of about 2.0. But this is just the pH of the food, and NOT what we are talking about. What we are talking about is the condition of the body after the food has been metabolized.

Does the food have an alkalizing effect on the body?

While there are some other factors in determining if a food is alkaline forming, usually foods that are rich in alkalizing minerals - calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and iron [and silica] while lower in acid forming minerals, sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, and iodine are considered alkalizing foods. Ideally, the food you eat has the minerals to get rid of the acids. If not, your body has to look other places. Some places include calcium and magnesium from bones, and potassium from cells.

What happens if your food does not have alkalizing minerals?

The basic question that everyone comes to what happens if you do not have alkalizing minerals in your food? The potassium comes from the cells. The calcium comes from the cells. This raises the question of what happens if you are low on calcium? Does your body get the calcium from the bones? Vitamin / mineral pills are a very short term solution Now that you know about the minerals that will be used to alkalinize the blood.

So what about taking vitamin pills with acid foods? Will that keep you alkaline?

Fast and immediate results have been demonstrated with vitamin / mineral pills. Thus their popularity. The problem is that the junk foods will still disease the body, just at a slower rate. The vitamin / minerals pills are not a cure, just a short term solution.

The body is designed for fresh fruits and vegetables, with all the various factors these supply. Eating junk food and taking vitamins will mean the body will miss these other factors. Where to get more information on vitamins and minerals. This book is not designed to go into details on exactly what vitamin or mineral is used in what process in the body. If you what to know a lot of the specifics on how vitamins and minerals are used by the body, you can find a book at most book stores.



According to the research of Dr. Enderlein, total healing of chronic illness takes place only when and if the blood is restored to a normal, slightly alkaline pH. In case you missed it, let me say it again...

Total healing of chronic illness takes place only when and if the blood is restored to a normal, slightly alkaline pH.

The magnitude of meaning behind this research is of incredible importance to someone who is fighting a disease, overcoming an illness, or just desiring to feel better. What it means is this...

Your Body pH Affects EVERYTHING.

Human blood stays in a very narrow pH range right around 7.3. Below or above this range means symptoms and disease.

  • When pH goes off, micro-organisms in the blood can change shape, mutate, become pathogenic, and thrive.

  • When pH goes off, ENZYMES that are constructive can become destructive.

  • When pH goes off, OXYGEN delivery to cells suffers.


More and more research is showing that low oxygen delivery to cells is a major factor in most if not all degenerative conditions.

Two time Nobel laureate, Dr. Otto Warburg of Germany, won his first Nobel Prize for his discovery of oxygen deficiency in the CANCER growth process. As stated above, when pH is off and our bodies are running more acidic, our cells are getting less oxygen. Cancer thrives under an acid tissue pH/oxygen deficient environment. Is it any wonder today that cancer rates are up?

To recall how important oxygen is to your life, just stop breathing for a minute. Get the idea? Each cell in your body can breathe fully or not. Which it is depends upon having an optimum pH balance. Do you think keeping an eye on your body pH might be important in your life?

pH Controls the Things You Can't Live Without...

When pH goes off ...


MICROBES in the blood can change shape, mutate, become pathogenic

ENZYMES that are constructive can become destructive

OXYGEN delivery to cells suffers

ORGANS of the body can become compromised, like your brain, or your heart.

MINERAL assimilation can get thrown off.

Like your BRAIN. Your brain needs fuel to run, and the fuel it uses is glucose. But unlike other cells, your brain can't store glucose. It depends on the second to second supply from the bloodstream - a bloodstream that is affected by pH, which controls the efficiency of INSULIN, which allows sugar to enter into cells which in turn controls blood sugar levels.

Your HEART. William Philpott M.D. in his 'Biomagnetic Handbook' made an important body pH/electrical connection.

As the pH of the blood goes more acid, fatty acids which are normally electro-magnetically charged on the negative side switch to positive and automatically are attracted to and begin to stick to the walls of arteries which are electro-magnetically charged on the negative side. (And as science states, opposites attract.) It should start to make sense that a society which over-emphasizes food that could push blood to be more acid will have a high rate of heart disease. And so it goes.

pH control impacts every biochemical process in the body including...

ENZYMES which are part of that biochemical process. There are hundreds if not thousands of enzyme processes which take place in the body. Many are so specific that they are like complex square pegs that need to "fit" into specific square holes in order to carry out their duty. If blood pH is off balance even a little, some important pegs are not "fitting" their respective slots. Enzyme function and thus life itself begins to suffer.

MINERAL ASSIMILATION is affected by pH. Minerals have different pH levels at which they can be assimilated into the body. Minerals on the lower end of the atomic scale can be assimilated in a wider pH range, and minerals higher up on the scale require a narrower and narrower pH range in order to be assimilated by the body. For example….

Sodium and magnesium have wide pH assimilation ranges.
It narrows somewhat for calcium and potassium.
Narrows more for manganese and iron.
More for zinc and copper.
More for iodine.

Iodine, which is high up on the atomic scale, requires near perfect pH for its assimilation into the body.

Iodine you may know, is one of the most important minerals for proper functioning of the THYROID. But, the thyroid doesn't get access to iodine unless the body pH is near perfect.

With a society in a largely pH unbalanced state, one would suspect a lot of thyroid problems. Malfunctioning thyroids have been connected to arthritis, heart attacks, diabetes, cancer, depression, overweight, fatigue and more. Are you starting to see the basic metabolic picture evolving here?

Due primarily to agricultural soil depletion and over-acidic food consumption, mineral deficiency is a large problem facing most people today. And mineral deficiency relates to the quantity of life energy or, more specifically, electricity, in our bodies.

Body mineral content and balances control the quantity of electricity in our bodies.

The speed at which the electricity flows is controlled by the body's pH balance.

pH Balance and the Mineral Connection

There are complex biochemical processes taking place in the body constantly in an attempt to keep blood pH as near perfect as possible. These are known as the pH buffering systems. These buffering systems need a good balance of minerals to work effectively. If we are getting inadequate mineral intake from the food we eat, we are going to start having problems with our pH balancing systems.

And if our pH is unbalanced, what is the result? Well, by now you should start having a good idea. Pick your disease, choose your unbalance. Cancer, arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, chronic fatigue, allergies, obesity, just name it. If you don't feel good, one of the basic things that stands between you and perfect health is your body's pH. Your basic metabolic body balance.

Your Disease is in Perfect Harmony With Your Body

From what you've learned so far, you should begin to understand the truth of this statement. When your body's mineral balances are off, your health is off. When your body's pH and basic metabolic processes are off, it sets up the internal environment that becomes a new playground for the opportunistic "bugs" - bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc.

Earlier we talked of the colloids of life in your blood (i.e. protits). How they form and what they evolve into is a function of pH - the terrain of the blood. What else is a constituent of the blood? How about the mineral balances we've been speaking about. Research has shown that the microbes of the blood can evolve into different forms when exposed to and combined with elements like heavy metals. For example, patients with high levels of mercury in their mouths often exhibit specific pleomorphic microbes in their blood.

Is it possible that something like high levels of copper, as referenced in the story above, are more than just an irritant to the brain? Might they set up the internal environment in the body whereby the colloids of life form into specific "bugs" that with some level of microbial consciousness are actually behind aggressive, violent or psychotic behavior? Some researchers would say that is exactly correct. And in so saying, your blood becomes much more than what you think it is.


Acidosis in racing horses 

For comparison Is interesting to see how horses are treated for this condition. Big money is often spent on a racing horse, and making sure they are at peak performance is critical.

Lowered Alkali Reserve ("acidosis")

The pH of the blood is critical!

If you are looking for a reason why there is a sudden, and apparently inexplicable, drop in your horse's racetrack performance ... read this bulletin!

The one single factor which causes a horse to "train off" faster than any other is a disturbance in its blood pH balance. Almost impossible to detect, especially in its early stages, this pH disturbance can be attributed to an excessive build-up of acids in the horse's system, a depletion of its natural alkali reserves, injudicious training techniques; and other closely associated factors such as high grain diets, the prevailing climate and workload.
A drop in the pH indicates an increase in the acidity of the blood. In lay terms, this is referred to as "acidosis", but more correctly it is the LOWERING OF THE ALKALI RESERVES.

The blood of the equine athlete has a very delicate acid/alkali balance. Optimum performance demands that this balance be maintained within very narrow, even critical, limits.


THE pH OF A SOLUTION is a symbol for the power of the hydrogen ions multiplied by 10.

AN ACID is a solution which provides hydrogen ions (H +) and can thus increase the H + of a solution, consequently lowering the pH - i.e. increase the activity.

A BASE is a substance which accepts hydrogen ions and can thus decrease the H + of a solution, consequently raising the pH - i.e. decreasing the acidity or raising the alkalinity.

THE pH OF THE BLOOD has to be maintained within extremely narrow ranges for optimum physiological functions. Wide variations, which are encountered in certain diseased states, are life-threatening.

ACIDOSIS is a loose term which is applied to a LOWERED ALKALI RESERVE in the body. From the point of view of a horse in training, as opposed to the many pathological conditions that can result in acidosis, a LOWERED ALKALI RESERVE is the direct result of strenuous muscular exercise.

LACTIC ACID is an organic acid normally present in muscle tissue, produced by anaerobic (in the presence of inadequate oxygen) muscle metabolism; it consists of 2 parts positive hydrogen ion and a negative lactate ion. It is formed when the glycogen stored in the muscles is broken down and used for energy.

Study of 1,379 horses

Analysis of 1,379 racehorse bloods confirms need for an alkali reserve replacer.
A unique and exhaustive study on the precise effects of work and climate on the body chemistry of a racehorse in training was conducted by RANVET in 1986 at Sydney's Randwick Racecourse.

A total of 1,379 horses were involved in the study, one of the most comprehensive ever undertaken in Australia. A normal pH level was determined; the dramatic drop in base excess levels which were observed established the need for an alkali reserve replacer, and recovery rates were monitored.

This study was undertaken by one of Australia's most eminent racehorse veterinarians who continued working on the project up until the beginning of 1992. A summary of his findings is set out in the tables below.

Blood Gas Analyses of Horses in Training.


Summer and Winter

Table ONE: Fast Work - SUMMER

Time Blood
Samples Collected




H2 /HCO*3

Saddled before work





10 minutes after work





2 1/2 hours after work





5 hours after work





7 hours after work





H 2C03 = CARBONIC ACID    HCO 3 = BICARBONATE *The normal ratio = approximately 1/20 

NB: Summer heat and humidity tends to reduce this ratio i.e. a tendency towards acidosis.

Table TWO: Fast Work - WINTER

Time Blood
Samples Collected




H2 /HCO*3

Saddled before work





10 minutes after work





2 hours after work





31/2-4 hours after work





5 hours after work





6 hours after work





NB: Recovery times quicker in winter.

What is a normal pH?

The normal pH of a horse's blood is between 7.42 and 7.45, so you can see just how narrow the range is... "point 03 " of a decimal point in fact! Any reading below 7.40 is an indication of "acidosis" (see Table ONE), while a reading of 7.20 would indicate severe "acidosis" (a severely depleted alkali reserve).

An explanation of what goes on.

Regardless of whether it is summer or winter, the end result of (a) converting grain to energy and (b) hard work and stress, is an abnormally high production of BODY ACIDS in the horse's system.

Highly strung horses produce even greater amounts of body acids, as they expend more energy than the placid animal.

Lactic acid accumulates in the muscle when the supply of oxygen is insufficient for the oxidative processes and quickly diffuses out into the blood stream. In moderate exercise the rate of rise of lactic acid is greatest at the very start of exercise before the circulatory and respiratory systems have reached optimum output. This diminishes as a steady state develops.

The unfit horse and the horse coming into work fresh, or for the first time, produces greater quantities of lactic acid for a given workload. As the horse becomes fitter, his ability to buffer and cope with the acid produced improves quite considerably. Fillies also seem to be more prone to this condition than colts or geldings. The reasons for this are presumably hormonal, but as yet are not clearly understood.

In strenuous exercise, due to the relative deficiency of oxygen, the excessive accumulation of lactate ions represents a considerable acidosis with a marked lowering of bicarbonate concentration.

The body cannot stand acidosis for long and it has a very effective built-in system to counter it. Following exercise some lactic acid is converted back to glucose to be reused at a later time and in addition the bloodstream can "buffer" the acid.

The other compensating mechanisms are (1) increased respiration which lowers the carbon dioxide tension (pCO) and (2) increased excretion of hydrogen ions via the kidneys.

In exercise, a much greater quantity of lactic acid escapes in the urine. Such a process helps to minimise the production of acidosis, but it also represents a loss of base as well as energy producing substances.

Quite simply, buffers and buffer systems "mop up" the excess acid, neutralising it, but this is done at a cost and particularly where very considerable amounts of lactic acid are produced, the buffer system can be overtaxed, i.e. the cost is too high. A major part of the buffer system is bicarbonate, which combines with acid and carries it away. It can be seen that bicarbonate therefore is used up as that acid is neutralised and removed; that is the price, a loss of bicarbonate.

Adding excess bicarbonate is not the answer.

Before we go any further, it should be pointed out that too much supplementary bicarbonate can be bad for the horse. No more than 30g extra per day should be given.

The answer is not simply to supplement large amounts of extra bicarbonate, but rather to strengthen the buffer systems to allow them to cope better with the surges of lactic acid after races and workouts. This strengthening of the buffer systems can easily be done by adding Ranvet's NEUTROLENE or Ranvet's NEUTROLENE PLUS to the feed on a daily basis.

NEUTROLENE is a citrate-based buffer system as is NEUTROLENE PLUS which has the added refinement of another specialised buffer - both are highly effective in countering acidosis.

In summary:

The body's bicarbonate supply is used up and the body's natural buffer systems are stretched to their utmost in the racehorse in work. Acidosis may be more correctly called depleted base (alkali) reserve. The bicarbonate and other buffer systems have a reduced ability to neutralise the acids - remember that bases (alkalis) are required to balance acids.

Remember that acidosis may not be the classical "tying-up" so familiar to most trainers; rather it may show up as a poor finish, the horse going sour, or the loss of the will to win.

Daily supplementation with either will bolster the body buffer system, allowing it to cope more successfully with "acidosis" by adding to the alkali reserve.


Alkali Reserves

Body Acid build-up

Renal excretion of body acids

Sodium & bi-carbonate losses

All day long, the body produces acids and every cell in the body is building-up acid. What the horse’s system must do is (a) get rid of the acids, and (b) conserve it’s alkali base, and thereby preserve the pH at a normal level. The mode of excretion of acid build-up is a series of very complex processes; the simplest and fastest method being BREATHING whereby the majority of carbonic acid produced is eliminated in the form of carbon dioxide. The stronger organic acids, such as lactic acid, have to be removed by a much slower method, namely through the KIDNEYS

Under normal conditions, a non-working horse can rid itself of acid build-up without depleting its alkali reserve, with the kidneys playing an important role in maintaining the correct acid-base balance (pH) of the body within the very narrow limits compatible with life. However, the situation changes dramatically when the horse is subjected to strenuous exercise. Work and stress produces a massive increase in certain body acids and a subsequent, and significant, increase in body acid build up. The acids are neutralized when they combine with an alkali (e.g.: Sodium) to form a salt (e.g.: Sodium Lactate). The immediate effect of this neutralizing process is a lowering of the horses’ alkali reserve due to loss of Sodium. As these Salts formed cannot pass through the kidney as solids, they must go into solution. To do this, they must take water from the horse’s system before being finally excreted in the urine. At this point, it should be noted, that due to the above a horse in work loses in just one hour up to twice as much water and Sodium (and Chlorides) as would normally be lost in a whole day at rest.  

From all of the above it can be appreciated that this continual neutralizing/water loss/kidney function can easily lead to depleted alkali reserve (ACIDOSIS) and DEHYDRATION, with the resultant adverse affect on the horse’s performance and physical well-being.

ACID URINE results from excessive build-up when there is insufficient alkali reserve available to neutralize the free acid.

Acid urine situations are seen in cases when a horse STRETCHES OUT TRYING TO URINATE….  he wants to but cannot … the reason being that the kidney is actually trying to hold back fluid because the horse is already dehydrated. The action of NEUTROLENE/N. PLUS in acid urine cases is such that it supplies the necessary constituents, in sufficient quantities, to combine with the free organic acids and thus make the urine ALKALINE; even allowing for the alkali losses which must accompany the neutralization and excretion of these acids. In acid urine cases, some trainers make the serious mistake of administering a diuretic ball, which actually heightens the problem by forcing the kidneys to release fluid from the system of an already dehydrated horse.

At this point it should also be noted that FIT HORSES have very little excess body fluids, and consequently, the volume of urine passed is low and concentrated. Again, some trainers make the mistake as seeing this as being a sign of “kidney trouble” and administer a diuretic ball thus predisposing the horse to dehydration by forcing the kidney to take more water from the horse’s body (a more rational treatment would be electrolytes and free access to water). Dehydration can be caused from (a) inadequate supply of water, or (b) inadequate intake of water due to a depression of the thirst reflex resulting from electrolyte (incl. Sodium) depletion.


Carbohydrates are stored in the horses’ muscles in the form of GLYCOGEN. When the horse is exercised, this glycogen is broken down and used for energy …  this results in the formation of LACTIC ACID.

Note:    The anaerobic (in the presence of inadequate oxygen) or glycolytic pathway utilizes carbohydrate exclusively in the breaking down of glycogen and subsequent production of lactic acid. 

The accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and blood is the most limiting factor of muscular activity and apparently results in muscle fibre damage, muscle cramps, “Tying-up”. Many horses are not properly trained for racing, and this factor probably also contributes to some cases of the “Tying-up” syndrome.

THE HORSE IS AN ATHLETE…. and an athlete cannot train for ONE HOUR a day and spend the other 23 hours in a box and be expecting to do well in athletic competition. Considerable production of lactic acid exceeds the horse’s normal buffering capacity and supplementary buffers are required (as supplied in Neutrolene PLUS).  

AEROBIC:                     In the presence of adequate oxygen.

ANAEROBIC:                Where the oxygen supply is inadequate.

Horses which work at speed over distance (THOROUGHBREDS and STANDARDBREDS) do considerable ANAEROBIC WORK in both training and racing….   And anaerobic work results in the production of lactic acid and other noxious by-products.

Horses which work at relatively slow rates over long distances (e.g.: endurance horses) do so AEROBICALLY. The advantage of aerobic work is that noxious metabolic by-products such as lactic acid are NOT produced in quantity, and thus metabolic diseases as synchronous diaphragmatic flutter, energy depletion and lactic acidosis are not prominent.

  • Lactic Acid lowers pH in muscle cells, denaturing protein and damaging the cell wall.

  • Lactic Acidosis impairs muscle function and interferes with athletic performance.

TRAINING (Conditioning) HORSES involves 2 basic segments:- 

Segment 1 - Strengthening:

  • Bone  

  • Ligament (band of fibrous tissue that connects bones or cartilages).  

  • Ligament (band of fibrous tissue that connects bones or cartilages).  

  • Tendon (Cord of connective tissue which attached muscle to bone).

  • Cartilage (specialized type of connective tissue).

  • Hoof  

Segment 2:    
Developing systems for producing energy in skeletal and cardiac muscle under aerobic (with 02) and anaerobic conditions. In training for SPEED, which is largely done anaerobically, the principal focus is skeletal muscle.


Ammonia that is produced in the kidney process is eliminated from the body when the URINE IS ACID. (Renal production of Ammonia is stimulated by acidosis).

When pungent, excessive ammonia smells are apparent in a horse’s box, it indicates that the horse’s normal alkali reserves have been chronically depleted (in the process of neutralizing excessive amounts of body acids) to such an extent that the horse’s system is forced into producing Ammonia (to get rid system of acid) in order to conserve base Sodium.


NORMAL Bicarbonate range:      29.5 – 34.0

Blood analysis example of how bicarbonate levels are lowered as a result of work:

            Before Work                  30.74

            Straight After                 16.10

            2 Hours After                 28.31

            7 Hours After                 29.43

In the above practical example it should be noted that while the drop in level only appears to be minimal it is nevertheless very significant and VERY CRITICAL, and acid-alkali ratio must be maintained within very narrow limits. 

Bicarbonates are used to neutralize excess body acids as follows: 

The weak carbonic Acid replaces the strong Hydrochloric Acid, and at the same time because the Carbonic Acid is volatile it can be rapidly removed as CO2 by breathing out. 

Hyperventilation after hard work depletes the horse’s alkali reserve, as the bicarbonates are lost from the system as the acid is neutralized and expelled as CO2

A low CO2 content is noticed in loss of carbon dioxide, as a result of hyperventilation, and is also seen in a case of metabolic acidosis or lowered alkali reserve (see blood sample example below).

CO2 content in Blood:

Before Work                  32.23

Straight After                 17.21

2 Hours After                 30.11

7 hours After                  31.02

(Normal CO2 Range: 31 – 35.5)


THE KIDNEY contributes significantly to the regulation (ACID/BASE balance via the active re-absorption of SODIUM, and the active secretion of hydrogen and ammonium ions (i.e. maintaining the pH of the body within the narrow limits compatible with life).

ACIDOSIS: A state where the horse’s blood has become more acid than is normal, due to excessive acid build-up resulting in depletion.

CHLORIDE ACIDOSIS: A particular case of acidosis caused by a relative increase in chloride concentration in the body fluids, due to an absolute loss of sodium and Potassium.

BUFFER SALTS or BUFFER BASE: These salts exist in equilibrium in the horse’s body fluids and can absorb either excessive acids or excessive alkalis. When Neutrolene Plus is indicated, the added buffer salts in NP are used to absorb excessive acid when the naturally occurring buffer salts have been exhausted.  



Blood acid neutraliser
Ranvet NEUTROLENE PLUS has been formulated as an aid in the treatment of "sweaty horses, and horses that are practically prone to ACIDOSIS, DEHYDRATION, and MYOPATHY (TYING UP).

Almost impossible to detect, especially in its early stages, this pH disturbance can be attributed to an excessive build up of acids in the horse's system, a depletion of its natural alkali reserves, injudicious training techniques; and other closely associated factors such as high grain diets, prevailing climate and workload.

A drop in the pH indicates an increase in the acidity of the blood. In lay terms, this is referred to as "acidosis", but more correctly it is the LOWERING OF THE ALKALI RESERVES.

The blood of the equine athlete has a very delicate acid/alkali balance. Optimum performance demands that this balance be maintained within very narrow even critical limits.

Blood acid Neutraliser

Ranvet Neutrolene Plus supplies a palatable formulation of acid-absorbing buffer salts to effectively return blood pH of the horse to a normal level for optimum performance.
Ranvet Neutrolene Plus provides an extra blood buffer to counteract sodium losses and neutralises lactic acid build up that lead to tying-up.

Just like the old diuretic ball but with no adverse side effects! 

Group One Seal of Quality

Ranvet NEUTROLENE PLUS puts your horses at the cutting edge of high performance feeding. Products that carry the Group One Seal of Quality are formulated to meet the requirements of racing at Group One level - the highest level of competition - by Ranvet; the name you can trust for quality.


Acidity2 ]