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22.1 The Temporocentric Delusion : The influence of Hoaxing in history
A main feature of the UFO Mystery is hoaxes. There is a lot of squabbling over
what are true facts and what are hoaxes. This feature of UFOlogy needs to be
taken into consideration of its historical context. Throughout history there
have been hoaxes that have created major changes in our history, when they were
mistakenly believed in at the time. At the moment an answer to the UFO mystery
seems difficult, may be by looking at historical instances of hoaxes we might
find a hint as to how to find an answer. For instance there seems a lot of
hoaxing going on around the events of Columbus.
Much of the UFO Mystery is tied into hoaxing. Certain people feel compelled by
their nature to perpetrate hoaxes, making it difficult to access reliable data
that could prove an answer to UFOs one way or another. Once evidence arises that
cannot be explained by known science, there often remains the possibility that
the evidence is someone's idea of a joke.
An interesting question is: could the UFO phenomenon in its entirety be a
complete hoax? Could there have been a group or groups that have been hoaxing us
throughout our history causing us to believe certain lies as truths? Or is the
UFO phenomenon a true phenomenon. And then it is the sceptics that dismiss
everything as hoaxes whenever possible, the people that are living a lie?
This question seems unanswerable to us today. But it might seems interesting to
look at a historical event: There was a lot of hoaxes around the historical
events that led up to the discovery of the New world by Columbus and what
happened after wards. Many historians like to try to erase the hoaxes from the
official record, and present us with the facts devoid of the hoaxes. around that
historical event. But that gives us a false impression of the past. These
historians present to us their interpretation of the past, based on their
beliefs as to what are hoaxes and what is truth, which is very different from
what the people ate the time believed. We look at our past history with our
conditioned beliefs, while the people in the past were often ‘taken in’ by
hoaxes and such like, and had a completely different version of how to interpret
By comparing looking at the hoaxes, and what was presumably false beliefs of
people in medieval times, given to them by hoaxes, we might gain an insight into
UFOs. What we believe about UFOs at the present time, might be looked back in
hindsight by later generations as meaning something different to that which we
think it means today.
Hoaxes have had a great influence upon historical events. The history lessons I
remember at school about England was something like : Romans conquered England,
then the Saxons and then the Normans. Between the Romans and the Saxons there
was the legend of King Arthur. To the Celt- Romans : Arthur was a hero, but to
the Saxons he was the enemy, the Anglo- Saxons gradually took over all of
England, but then lost to the Normans. The Normans need some historical
justification for taking charge, and reinstated King Arthur as a hero, making it
seems like ‘they’ were continuing on that kingship line (in a sense) while
it had been temporarily disrupted by the Saxons for a while. At least that was
my impression of English history, that King Arthur was tied into some propaganda
exercise conducted by the Normans, justifying why they had historical precedent
for taking charge. It seems perfectly reasonable that history is a political
tool. People in charge want justification for why they are in charge, and having
history or any other means is a political propaganda exercise. And when true
history is not sufficient for the task, then a bit of ‘spin doctoring’ is
called for, by placing a different 'slant' on what happened in the past. at the
extreme of this hoaxing of history is carried out to make the past appear the
way that authority likes it to appear.
History is a ‘hot potato' and people want it to agree with their beliefs, then
a lot of squabbling happens, similar to a lot of squabbling over the UFO
Mystery. In this light, the UFO phenomenon is undergoing the same human
socio-political- what ever forces that seek to shape the public’s perception
of history. i.e. UFOs are a small part of a much larger phenomenon that of
I want to deal with a specific part of history- the events around Columbus’s
discovery of America. To me its a complete mystery what happened. To many people
there is no mystery, they are clear what happened: what the hoaxes are and what
are the truths. To me these people seem to place their opinions of the
historical events upon faith. I am open minded, different people say different
things about what was the hoax and what was not the hoax. I see no way to decide
between them. To me history gets lost. The actions of people in their normal
activities of altering the facts to fit whatever they want to believe, means
that our true history gets distorted under a mess of arguing as to what is the
truth, leading to various groups forming deciding that they know the truth, why
the other groups are lying or deceived. No one has come up with a scientific
method to test what is ‘truth’ upon all of the issues that historians can
squabble over, as consequence the normal actions of humans means that knowing
the true history becomes lost. We are quite a pitiful species, to many of us the
‘truth’ does not mean anything, instead fantasy is preferable. But what is
truth and what is fantasy? Our group actions often prevent us from finding out.
The hoaxing that seems to have gone on in the Middle Ages pulls in too many
directions and makes it very difficult to know what is going on. I will split it
up as best as I can.
The scenario I have :
1. According to standard history the Romans were not much interested in pure
science, they were more interested in technology, especially with technology
applied to winning wars. They managed to take over a lot of the Greek Empire
that Alexander built up.
2. The Greeks were very advanced in sciences and technologies, and were allowed
to carry on in the Roman era.
3. The Greeks seemed to know a lot of science. But different Greeks were
advocating different theories. Conventional interpretation would have us believe
that the wrong theories were adopted from the Middle Ages onwards, if not from
the Roman Times.
4. When Christianity took over the Roman Empire, was there some sort of
deliberate campaign set up to destroy ancient knowledge? The Library at
Alexandria was set alight by Christian fanatics, who identified all non-
Christian writings as pagan, heretical and should be destroyed whether they
dealt with pagan religions or pagan science or whatever.
The rise of Christianity seems to have been a deliberate attempt to turn back
the ‘clock of knowledge' and suppress certain knowledges.
When we look at the past, we like to think of things in terms of a straight line
natural progression in knowledge, this is a temporocentric prejudice, whereby
you erroneously believe that the further you go back the more primitive
people’s knowledge was. But what you really seem to have is - the Romans had a
vast knowledge base from their ancient world, which they apparently were not too
interested in, and which a campaign by anti- knowledge fanatics set about trying
to destroy. So, we have a sudden down turn in science, and then a rediscovery
period of the Renaissance.
How advanced some ancients were is an unknown question, and certain people like
to force a version of history upon us where there was no sudden dip in knowledge
acquiescence, with a false steady increase in knowledge throughout history.
Viewing history in this way seems to have psychologically appealing aspects to
During the Middle Ages there still seemed to be a campaign in progress of
suppressing this ancient knowledge, and certain unknown people were engaged in
perpetrating hoaxes to maintain a false version of history and a false science
upon the public. Presumably these people were working from a religious
conviction that pagan ideas had to be removed general public thought? And was a
progression of the earlier fanatics ‘book burning’ activities in the early
It appears to me that in the West, we have inherited a big tradition of hoaxing
to try to suppress certain truths.
22.3 The Ancient Greeks
When the Greeks began their map making , they had considerable experience to
lean on - particularly from the Babylonians, who had already developed scales,
cardinal points and the concept of global maps. A debt to both Babylonia and
Egypt was acknowledged by the Ionian Greeks of the western coast of Turkey, who
led the world in scientific research during the seventh and sixth centuries BC.
While it is clear that the Greeks had already discovered that the world was
spherical, the easiest way to represent it "on the flat" was by a
circle. This led many geographers to idealise the shape of the continents to fit
them neatly within a perfectly circular sea. Around 430 BC the great historian
and traveller Herodoctus (an Ionian Greek) mocked this geometrical school of map
making: "it makes me laugh when I see some people drawing maps of the world
without having any reason to guide them; they show the Ocean running like a
river round the earth, and the earth itself to be an exact circle, as if drawn
by a pair of compasses, with Europe and Asia just of the same size."
Herodotus was clearly aware of better work; he describes a realistic map of the
Persian Empire (reaching from the Balkans to India) used in 490 BC. The
geographical knowledge of the fifth century BC was well ahead of that shown in
the earliest Greek maps transmitted to us by one means or another. 
The greatest geographer of Roman times was a Greek- speaking Egyptian, Ptolemy
of Alexandria (c. AD 90 - 168). Ptolemy made some major blunders. He ignored the
evidence given by Herodotus and joined up southern Africa to eastern Asia by a
strip of land called Terra Incognita. Worst of all, he seriously underestimated
the size of the earth. In the third century BC, the Greek mathematician
Erastosthenes had already calculated the world’s circumference as 24,700
miles. Ptolemy, however, used an estimate of 17,800 miles. The real figure is
24,902 miles, meaning that whereas Eratosthenes was correct within an error of
one percent, Ptolemy was way off the mark. Ptolemy’s error meant that the land
mass well known to him, from the west coast of Spain to India, occupied much too
great a percentage of the globe’s surface. This had far reaching consequences,
influencing Christopher Columbus in making his own underestimate of the
earth’s circumference - hence his belief when he arrived in the Americas that
he had actually reached India. The "West" Indies ultimately owe their
name to Ptolemy’s blunder. [ 2]
All of this can get confusing. The Ancient Greeks knew that the earth was a
sphere, even though the Greeks squabbled over a lot of theories, this seems
agreed upon by them. There was a sudden dip in peoples’ knowledge in the
Middle Ages. The centre of knowledge was the Library at Alexandria. When
Christians took authority, this Greek learning was identified with paganism and
attacked. The final blow to the library was when it was burnt in 640 by the
Moslems.  The Christians adopted Greek theories that best fitted in with
their beliefs, and the main Greek’s beliefs they adopted was Aristotle. We are
often told that people in Medieval times thought the world was flat, but
Aristotle held the belief that the world was round. When did the Christians
decide to rediscover that the world was round?
The Christians came up with a complicated reason why you could not travel all
the way around a round earth. But the Christian mistaken beliefs, would not have
been what the ancient pagans believed. So, what prevented a few of their
adventurous explorers from mapping lots of it?
Evidence that supposedly shows Roman presence in America is disputed. . Maps
that are copies from very ancient times are ignored as much as possible by the
establishment  There are too many people who want to view the past as a
natural progression of increasing knowledge, and it feels ‘nice’ to them
that pagans before the Christian era knew very little about the world. But when
you look at the facts there was this dip in knowledge/ science brought about by
the christianisation process.
The fate of Hypatia, the last mathematician of the Alexandrian school, is seen
as representing the end of an era of knowledge. She refused to abandon her Greek
religion, and Christian fanatics tore her limb from limb. This is seen as the
end of Greek thought in the West for the many centuries of the Dark Ages. [ 6]
It seems that Greek knowledge was elitism. Christianity appealed to the general
public, that was ignorant of most scientific matters, who stirred up by their
new religion decided to destroy the old science of the pagan past, by disposing
of these pagan scientists. Greek science was not rediscovered by the West until
the Renaissance. During the Dark Ages, the old knowledge was lost.
And we are now have our temporocentric prejudices, where we like to think of
ourselves as being cleverer than an ancient peoples. People want to impose their
version of what history should be like dependent upon what they like to believe.
Based on a belief in evolution, certain people like to see a straight line
increase in knowledge acquisition from ancient times, and do not like to
recognize the fact that there were some very clever ancient peoples.
Hoaxing appears to be going on by these squabbling people as they try to make
history fit into their beliefs. People squabble over what were the hoaxes in
past centuries and place new interpretations on the past. It appears our belief
systems are being altered quite regularly as history gets rewritten.
I have stumbled onto an example of this in connection with Columbus’s
discovery of America: was Columbus the first European to visit America? (N.B.
Columbus did not get as far as North America, but he was close enough.) Some
people are now saying that Europeans such as Romans, Egyptians etc., had got to
the Americas, or in general crossed the Atlantic. There is heated argument over
this and a skeleton called the Kenswick man etc.
Kenneth Feder tells us about Greek Eratosthenes calculation for the
circumference of the earth being nearly correctly.  And then tells us that
most people in the 15 th century did not believe the world was flat, and there
was little expectation that Columbus would sail off the edge of the world. 
Giles Milton agrees that people did not believe the earth was flat, and says
that it had long been disproved by the 14th century, and most geographers
accepted that the world was a globe hanging in the filament. But there was a
great geographical debate of this age concerning three questions: [ 9]
1. Was there land in the southern hemisphere?
2. If so, was it habitable?
3. And most important of all, could it be visited?
Giles Milton says that the majority of people, supported by church teaching,
believed that sailing around the world was impossible, and Columbus’s crew had
a real fear that their ship was going to topple over the edge when they crossed
the equator.  So, he disagrees with the last comment by Feder.
It strikes me as a bit odd that medieval people were thinking in terms of
falling off of a sphere, instead of what my school days led me to believe that
they feared falling off a flat surface. In Aristotle’s physics his idea was
that the earth was the centre of the universe, and all matter wanted to be near
that centre, so even matter on the bottom half of the world would be wanting to
fall towards the centre of the earth, and not away from it. It seems odd that
medieval people were not taking this version of Aristotle. So, presumably they
were misunderstanding Aristotle? Anyway:
Milton says that few people in those days could countenance the idea of there
being land in the southern hemisphere -arguing that because land was heavier
than water it would obviously fall of the world -and even well - travelled and
educated men did not believe in the possibility of circumnavigating the globe.
The devout John of Marignolli had voyaged thousands of miles across Asia yet
mocked the idea that it was possible to travel around the world, while the few
that argued that there was habitable land on the underside of the earth were
held up for public ridicule. Sceptics joked about men living upside down and
rain falling upwards towards the earth. [ 11]
Such ideas stemmed from the cloistered world of the Church which dismissed any
theories that didn’t conform with the biblical view of the world. as far as
the Church was concerned, all mankind descended from Noah and if Noah had never
been ‘beneath’ the earth then how and where did people in the southern
hemisphere spring from? This was not the only objection: since the offer of
salvation had been promised to the whole of mankind, how could an entire section
of the world be cut off from this message. For if the apostles didn’t go to
the antipodes, that must surely mean that the antipodes could not exist. An
inhabited southern hemisphere simply did not fit in with Christian teaching and
fort this fact alone St. Augustine considered belief in the existence of the
antipodes to be not only wrong, but heretical as well. 
This religious belief system of the medieval times was a big handicap in
scientific progress. There seems much more freedom of ideas in Ancient Greeks
era, deduced from the few records we have left from them. They had no Biblical
inspired idea of falling off the earth, whether it was a sphere or a flat
surface, so what would have prevented some of them from finding out by
Herodoctus’ History includes accounts of the Phoenician circumnavigation of
Africa (c. 600 BC) and of the voyage of Scylax down the Indus river, from this
he concluded that the southern ocean extended from India to Spain. [ 13]
Herodoctus thus knew that the Phoenician explorers did not fall off the equator,
even if he thought of such a preposterous piece of speculation. The ancient
Greeks and the Romans had none of the religious hindrances to their scientific
knowledge. So, why do we still think it is impossible for them to travel across
the Atlantic ocean, if they put their mind to it? It is our temporocentric
nature!! We do not want to look for the evidence of such possibilities, because
we are temporocentric. But as noted earlier the mediaeval people were basing
themselves on Ptolemy’s map and he ignored a lot of Herodoctus’ data, and
presumably he distorted his map so that there was no land below the equator on
The maps of the ancient Greeks were much more advanced than medieval maps:
22.5 Ancient Greek maps
After the fall of the Roman Empire, in the sixth century AD, map making in the
West, like so many other sciences, went into serious decline. The art of
cartography also remained static among the Arabs. Only the Chinese made major
strides in cartography during the early Middle Ages. In Europe the tendency to
produce idealized maps fitting geometrical shapes returned, called ‘mappae
mundi’ that conceptually were no more advanced than the Babylonian world map
of 600 BC. However there exist extremely advanced maps from the Middle Ages,
such as the famous Vinland Map. This map was discovered bound in a book of
medieval manuscripts in 1957. It was drawn on fifteenth-century parchment but
supposedly records much earlier information. The map shows the northern shore of
Greenland, which became invisible after A.D. 1200, when it disappeared under the
polar ice sheet. Surprisingly the coast of Greenland is drawn far more
accurately than it is on the North Atlantic map prepared by Icelander Sigurdur
Stefansson in AD 1590. It also shows Vinland, the farthest point of Henricus's
journey and the Viking name for New England as we know from the Vinland Sagas,
which record the discovery of North America by the adventurer Leif Eiriksson
around AD 1000. 
The Vinland Map was first hailed by experts at Yale University as proof of the
Vikings' familiarity with North America during the early Middle Ages. But in
1974 analysis of ink taken from the map appeared to show that it contained large
amounts of titanium dioxide; ink pigments based on this substance were not
manufactured until after 1920. The skeptics then proclaimed the map a modern
forgery However, a study undertaken at the University of California in 1985
shown that the original chemical analysis was quite inadequate, and the levels
of titanium dioxide were consistent with amounts found in medieval inks. This
result has reopened the controversy over the Vinland Map.
Sailors’ maps from the late thirteenth to fifteenth centuries known as
portolans (from an Italian word for "sailing directions"), are also
controversial, even though the authenticity has never been in doubt. When they
first came to attention of modern scholars at the turn of this century, they
were enthusiastically greeted as "the first true maps." The portolans
generally concentrate on the Mediterranean area, but some range as far as the
Black Sea to the east and Britain and the Atlantic islands to the west. The
outlines of the Mediterranean coast shown on an early portolan dating from A.D.
1311 were not improved on until the eighteenth century.
The ‘mappae mundi’ maps are very naive and the ‘portolan’ maps are very
sophisticated. Both maps were made in the Middle Ages. The difference between
them was that the ‘mappae mundi’ were made by the Church, and the
‘portolan’ were made for sea farers who needed practical maps not idealized
The ‘mappae mundi’ development can be clearly traced from late Roman times
through the Dark Ages, but the ‘portolans’ appear, as if from ‘nowhere’,
fully developed around A.D. 1270. It has been argued that the ‘portolans’
are derived from a few key originals. But who, made the original ‘portolan’
maps? Suggested answers range from the Knights Templars, the Chinese, the
ancient Phoenicians etc., but have no sound evidence to back the suggestions up.
The big clue comes from the Turkish admiral Piri, who also made portolan-style
maps, stated clearly that among the sources he used were maps dating back to the
time of Alexander the Great (336-323 BC.). But such a claim is disputed.
The temporocentrism of scholars leads to them having a prejudice from
interpreting the evidence in the correct way, namely that the ancient world
before medieval times was more advanced than medieval times.
The medieval world believed in Christianity and this laid them open to a hoax,
the hoax of Ptolemy. The medieval Christians too readily accepted the
information that came from Ptolemy, because it agreed with their beliefs. But
the information from Ptolemy was wrong.
22.6 The Ptolemy hoax
Poseidonius indirectly exerted an extraordinary influence upon the science of
western Europe until the Renaissance, belonged to an age lacking in creative
genius. Many of the best minds were engaged in synthesising and reconciling the
more plausible views of the earlier Greek philosophers and scientists. Of these
compilers Poseidonius proved to be the most apt at assimilating the work of his
predecessors and embodying their findings in readable compendiums of knowledge
in many fields. The Greek compilations of this period provided the bulk of the
scientific material of leading Roman intellectuals, who in turn transmitted this
body of handbook information to the Latin middle ages. And so, whereas Greek
science went on to reach new heights at Alexandria in the second century AD and
to flourish at a high level at Byzantium and among the Arabs during the middle
ages, scientific studies in the Latin West stagnated for 1000 years in the hands
of bookish laymen who were satisfied to copy or revise stock material largely
originating in Greek compendiums from the Poseidonian age. Poseidonius made a
revised calculation of the circumference of the earth, which Ptolemy accepted
instead of the nearly correct one. Ptolemy’s acceptance of a smaller figure of
the earth’s dimensions and his enormous reputation as a geographer in the 15th
century afforded Columbus encouragement to attempt a westward sailing to the
Geographical and astronomical research reached its apex in antiquity in the work
of Ptolemy, whose Geography (c. AD 150), in eight books, culminated the
researches of his predecessors. Ptolemy appeared to the ancient world to have
fulfilled Hipparchus’ scheme of constructing a map of the known world from
geodetic positions located precisely upon a network of 360 degrees of latitude
and longitude. Ptolemy’s theory was excellent but his practice was shoddy.
Actually he had almost no scientific cartographic data - a few latitudes
determined astronomically and a token attempt to ascertain longitudes by timing
of eclipses. Instead he depended mainly on dead reckoning from reports of
travellers. A modern reconstruction of his world map, based upon his 8000
coordinates reveals glaring defects. Despite its defects Ptolemy’s work had
canonical authority for 1500 years. Maps in the "Ptolematic style"
continued to appear in atlases more than a century after Columbus and Magnellan
had disproved Ptolemy’s conceptions, and some of his errors persisted in maps
even in the 18th and 19th centuries. 
Some books are less favourable on Cluadius Ptolemy (c. 90 - 168) and call him a
fraud, and accusing him of cooking the data to suit his theory, about the
earth's position relative to the other planets. Goldberg calls him the most
successful fraud in history, because he was believed for 1500 years before
Copernicus, Galileo etc., claimed him to be wrong.  It seems strange that
science at the beginning of the Christian era was based on a fraud, or if we are
charitable upon a very big collection of errors. But the fact is: before
Poseidonius, Ptolemy and all, the ancient Greeks had a much better science than
in medieval times. Medieval science was based on a corruption of the ancient
Greek sciences by many varied and complicated reasons, with the Christians all
too ready to believe the corrupted versions because it seemed to be in agreement
with their religious beliefs. I wonder if they were deliberately hoaxed? But it
happened too long ago, to be able to find out?
But our temporocentric prejudices now prevent many people from contemplating the
possibility that the ancient Greeks were far more advanced than medieval
science: another sort of belief system, that lulls us into trying to interpret
history in only one certain way.
When Galileo pointed his telescopic lenses at the night sky, he made many
amazing discoveries. But consider this - according to Marshall Clagett: optics
among the Greeks was a distinctly experimental and mathematical character. The
geometrical aspects of optics were no doubt studied in the 4th century BC as
Aristotle’s curious and erroneous treatment of the rainbow indicates. [ 18]
Our temporocentric prejudices allow us to believe that these Greeks were
‘dumb’ enough not to think about using their optics on the night sky. So,
that when we get evidence of may be ancient people had knowledge beyond what
could be obtained by the naked eye, the orthodoxy can just ignore it by our
prejudices. (I am thinking of Robert Temple’s book on the Dogon tribe - The
There are major inconsistencies with our version of ancient history, one moment
we allow these ancient scientists a great deal of wisdom, but the next moment we
have to assume that they were very ‘dumb’ and would not make the next step
in their progress. Orthodoxy assumes: Yes, they had optics, but they were not
clever enough to think about using optics to observe the night sky. Who is
‘dumber’ us or them? By believing them dumb we ignore the evidence to the
contrary. Einstein said something like: a theory determines what is observed.
The orthodoxy assumes the ancients ‘stupid’ whenever it can, and ignores
evidence to the contrary, because it does not fit in with their
And when we accept that the ancient Greeks were clever, then consider this from
It was the method of Greek philosophers such as Plato to write a dialogue
between characters, so as to present two different points of view. One character
would argue one perspective, and another character(s) would argue another. In
Plato’s Laws, the two characters rapidly agree that there is truth in what was
to them ancient stories of lost civilizations that had collapsed due to
disasters such as floods, wars etc. The characters go on to discuss that it was
natural that the survivors from these civilizations had lost the civilization's
technology. knowledge etc. In another writing, Plato talked of Atlantis. 
The dialogues are supposed to be set up so that different characters argue
different points of view. It was so obvious to Plato that there existed lost
civilizations that he considered were as clever as his Greek civilization, that
it was not worth arguing over.
We do not think it is so obvious, we like to argue over things. We argue over
whether Atlantis was fiction or not, etc. But while we argue, we do not bother
to look properly. The orthodoxy becomes the assumption that there were no lost
civilizations, and searchers after the truth are discouraged from looking.
Temporocentrism allows us to not have to believe the sad nature of the human
race, of building up civilizations that crumble into dust and get forgotten. If
we drop out temporocentrism, then the past becomes a complete mystery. Modern
homo sapien sapien started c.40,000 years ago. When was the first civilization
of the calibre of ancient Greece?
22.7 What were the Medieval Science beliefs?
Society is always made up of a cross section of belief systems, and so the
question is - what was the prominent belief that people had about the world in
the 15th century. I think, that may be most intellectuals believed the world was
round in the 15 th century, while the ordinary person might have held erroneous
beliefs like the earth was flat. But believing the world was round, instead of
flat, still left people with the idea that ‘you fell off the other hemisphere
of the globe.’
This point that people then believed that you might fall off the edge of the
world at the equator, I find hard to believe. Does it mean that sailors were too
afraid to follow the land mass of Africa around, in case they fell off? There
surely should have been some sailors brave enough to try such voyages and report
back their successes?
When I looked at references to what people believed before Galileo, I found that
the intellectuals based their ideas of physics on the great Greek philosopher
Aristotle. Aristotle believed erroneously that the earth was the centre of the
universe, but he was correct in believing the earth was spherical. So, Europeans
basing their beliefs on Aristotle from Christian - Roman times will have known
that the earth was spherical.
Now, Columbus based the plans for his sea voyage to the Orient based on
Ptolemy's calculation, and so thought it was a far shorter distance to the
Orient than it actually was, and also did not know that America was in the way.
I found it a mystery as to what caused Columbus to try his voyage, while other
medieval people were not pursuing a similar line of thought. Then I found a book
talking about Sir John Mandeville, and found that Mandeville was the inspiration
Giles Milton has written an interesting book about Sir John Mandeville who left
England in 1322 for a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and thirty four years later
he returned claiming to have travelled half way round the world. Mandeville’s
book The Travels was the most popular book in the Middle Ages, that influenced
Columbus’s voyage to America and the great explorers who followed him. Yet in
the 19th century what had been taken for ‘true’ for over five centuries was
discredited by scholars who claimed that The Travels was an elaborate
Mandeville wrote outrageous tales and humorous mishaps, which captivated his
readers. The most important part of the book which made the book different from
other travellers' books was a startling passage, where Mandeville claimed that
his voyage proved for the first time that it was possible to set sail around the
world in one direction and return home from the other. This passage altered
peoples' perceptions and set the chain of events in motion leading to the great
expeditions of the Renaissance. Columbus planned his 1492 expedition after
reading The Travels. Raleigh studied the book and pronounced that every word was
true; while Sir Frobisher was reading a copy as he ploughed his pioneering route
through the North- west Passage. 
The whole story of Mandeville gets ‘bogged down’ in hoaxes, which I will
discuss anon. But the point now is that Mandeville brought out a book that
inspired explorers to set out on their journeys. there was about a hundred years
difference between Columbus’s voyage and the date the book that inspired him,
was published. Why did it not seem to inspire anyone else to try such a voyage,
in those hundred years before Columbus?
A fairly simple strategy could be pursued sailors could then have at least taken
a few trips to see what was out there. i.e.. gone a certain distance see if
there was land, if they found nothing after a certain time, they would decide
their rations were running out and return home, reporting no land seen within
certain limits. Try again if you dare when more equipped. If the fear was of
falling off the world at the equator, then the best place to try this method
across the Atlantic, would be in the North. The Vikings appeared to have pursued
such a strategy in the north Atlantic, travelling to Greenland, Iceland and most
likely America also. [ 22]
It sound odd that people in England, Scotland, Ireland etc., were not aware of
America. The Scottish Chapel Rosslyn has plant motifs of aloe cactus and maize
corn, both supposedly American plants that were unknown outside America, until
well into the 16th century. This Chapel was finished being built in 1441, and
Columbus did not take his 1492 voyage until 51 years later.  Things start
look very peculiar with any official history, when one takes a little ‘peek’
below the surface.
If such a thing happened then it appears to have been covered up from official
history. What is going on here? Could there have been different groups of people
covering up their knowledge of a vast land mass across the Atlantic? And if
‘they’ whoever ‘they’ are can cover up something like this in the 15 th
century, then who knows how much more sophisticated ‘they’ are today, if
‘they’ are still around.
Now let’s look at Mandeville:
22.8 Mandeville’s book
Mandeville’s book was divided into two halves with the first part dealing with
a description of Constantinople..he claimed to have travelled south to Cyprus,
Syria and Jerusalem as well as visiting St.. Catherine’s monastery in the
Sinai desert. The second half of his Travels - as Mandeville journeys across
India and China towards Java and Sumatra - that his stories enter the realms of
fantasy. The further east he travels the more gruesome the creatures he meets
until he is mixing with women with dogs’ heads, two-headed geese, giant snails
and men with enormous testicles, which dangle beneath their knees... writes with
relish about cannibals who eat babies and pagans that drink from their
fathers’ skulls. [ 24] .[i.e.. It is easy to get away with adding fantasy to
places where other travellers had not been to, because it could not be
Six centuries after he wrote his Travels, Mandeville lies discredited and
forgotten, because Academics had demolished his reputation. His book was
disputed as lies, and Sir John’s life was mysterious. There were rumours that
he was an impostor, a dabbler in black magic etc. Mandeville was believed in
medieval times, and his book was very popular. But as the world was charted by
geographers, his stories of magical valleys were shown to be nothing but
figments of his imagination until, by the 17 th century, he was being mocked in
stage satires as the archetypal lying traveller. [ 25]
Mandeville had a brief reprieve in Georgian London, when his revised tales
appealed to the bawdy sense of humour. His story was stripped of its devotional
material, and concentration was on the pygmies, monsters and cripples that
Mandeville met in the east, with a lot more fantasy added.  The Victorians
then dismissed it all as fabrication.
A similar sort of procedure seems to happen with some UFO cases, they get added
to and amended, until the whole case is dismissed as fabrication, in the same
way as Sir John’s book and life was treated.
Mandeville’s reputation was destroyed by Victorian critics, who assumed that
he hadn’t travelled at all and cited the tall stories as proof that his entire
voyage was a fiction. But in doing so they overlooked the fact that even men who
definitely did travel in the Middle Ages recounted marvels that they had clearly
invented. They also ignored the fact that to sustain the fiction of having
travelled - if indeed it was fiction - would have been no mean feat. Other
writers who had attempted similar deceits have almost always come unstuck
because of a simple error or foolish slip. Discrediting Mandeville’s name by
accusing him of copying from other travel books was similarly unfair. Mandeville
had copied vast chunks of other writers. But medieval writers had a very liberal
attitude to plagiarism and it was deemed perfectly acceptable to lift
interesting passages from other books and incorporate them into your own.
Chaucer himself had few scruples when it came to borrowing stories from his
It is a situation of the establishment over looking the mistakes of the people
they want to be their ‘heroes’ and condemning the people they do not want
‘heroes’ by exposing those self same mistakes.
Little remains as trace of Mandeville’s life. History decided not to pick him
as a hero, and has left no memorial, except an almost illegible inscription in
St. Alban’s Abbey. 
Britannica says that Mandeville was famous in the Renaissance as the greatest
traveller of the Middle Ages, and also as the greatest liar.  Whether Sir
john really made his journeys or not, is not that important, as the effect that
of his short chapter in which he ‘proves’ that it is possible to
circumnavigate the world had me scratching my head. For although he presents
details of his theory and backs it up with scientific observations and
astronomical observations, the passage is seemingly plonked into the book at
random and, once discussed, is never mentioned again.[ 30]
Robert Clutterbuck, 1815 in History and Antiquities of Hertfordshire, claims
that Mandeville’s account of his Travels, was falsified by monks who added in
later editions with legendary tales and stories out of Pliny. 
People adding hoaxes to a story, distorting it, sound like life of Jesus again?
Anyway the hoax of Mandeville’s life was perpetrated by Outremeuse:
22.9 Mandeville’s hoaxed life
Giles Milton says : ‘someone, for some unknown but possibly sinister reason,
had at one time had a vested interest in concealing Sir John’s true
identity.’ There is an epitaph to Sir John’s epitaph in St. Albans Anney,
and at one time there had also been an epitaph in a church in Liege, Belgium,
with Liege claiming Sir John as a citizen of their town. 
The chronicle has it that Sir John was living in Liege under the assumed name of
John of Burgundy, with a string of titles. A story of Sir John that has been the
basis of Sir John Mandeville from 16th century to the present day. Secret came
out from John on his deathbed confession to Jean d’Outremeuse, who was the
sole witness. Outremeuse was probably lying. d’Outremeuse was a romancer who
wrote fanciful tales using imaginary sources. On the rare occasions he had
reliable sources he used them. When he didn’t he made them up.[ 33]
The real life of Mandeville seems hidden by forgeries and fabrications. Giles
Milton describes it as if Mandeville’s detractors had deliberately scattered
the path to find Mandeville’s real life story with misleading clues in the
hope that researchers would lose their way. [ 34] Now does that not sound
interesting? There are similarities to this case and the problems that some UFO
researchers have. A case that might be genuine, acts like a magnet for hoaxes,
and these hoaxes then detract attention away from the topic, as it then enters
the next stage of being ridiculed.
The added problem with Mandeville, is that it is very difficult to decide when
Sir John himself is lying or telling the truth. By the 17th century people were
beginning to recognize the anti- papal sentiments scattered throughout The
Travels that helped spread across Europe the mentality that paved the way for
the Reformation. Long after Purchas’s book was forgotten, writers and
antiquarians were still quoting this speech in their accounts, and
Mandeville’s criticisms of the Pope came to be seen as more and more
important. Some Victorian scholars developed the idea that The Travels was
nothing short of anti-papacy propaganda and came up with ever more startling
theories to support their claims. Some went so far as to suggest that the
alphabets scattered throughout his book were in fact a series of secret codes
containing anti-papal messages. 
If Sir John was anti- papal, may be he was fearful of danger and deliberately
went into some sort of hiding, that’s why later researchers believed
Outremeuse? Who knows? The rulers were trying to rule through religious beliefs,
and just by saying something that was in conflict with those beliefs made you a
rebel, so may be Sir John had something to be scared of and had a genuine need
to hide, or may be he was just an imagined threat?
22.10 Mandeville’s Stories
To modern ears, Sir John’s fabulous tales about Java, Sumatra and Borneo sound
more like fables than the eyewitness descriptions of a genuine traveller, but to
his contemporaries such monsters were very real creatures. Giles Milton points
out that it only requires a shift from the rational thinking to a lateral
thinking to get some sensible explanations for many of Mandeville’s more
outlandish descriptions. Giant snails for instance could really have been
referring to giant tortoises, and dog-faced men could have been baboons which
have a dog type face. 
Witnesses of aliens might also be suffering from similar difficulties in
describing the ‘new’. Sir John might have been trying to explain the
‘new’ in terms that he contemporaries were familiar with, and hence it was a
very distorted account. But then some of Sir John’s accounts defy a sensible
And then Sir John makes a big mistake he falls for a hoax, which indicates he
did not travel to the Far East and was instead cribbing from accounts from other
travel writers, adding extra with his imagination. Sir John describes reaching
India and visiting the vast Christian kingdom of Prester John, a Christian wise
ruler who had seven kings serving under him. Unknown to Sir John, Prester John
was a hoax, so Sir John could not have gone to India, and instead made that
story up. 
Mandeville seemed to have fallen into the trap of believing a complicated hoax
about Prester John, and this discredits his claim that he really went to the Far
East to a large extent. i.e.. he was tricked into believing a hoax, and that
reveals he was hoaxing.
22.11 The Prester John Hoax
Mandeville was not the only person to believe the stories about Prester John.
All the aristocracy in medieval Europe believed that a Christian emperor called
Prester John ruled over the Indian continent. This was based on a hoaxed letter
sent to Pope Alexander III in 1177, claiming to be from Prester John - who
planned to recapture of Jerusalem, for the Christians. The apostle Thomas was
believed to have gone to India and preached there, and died a martyr, laying the
foundations for the powerful Christian state then ruled by Prester John. 
Prester John might have really existed, but not as a Christian king ruling a
Christian empire but instead as a Mongol king called Gur-khan, who won a big
battle in the Far East, and had Christian followers. Milton thinks that as news
of Gur- Khan’s victory spread back to the West, the name got distorted first
phonetically into Hebrew as Yohanan, then in Syriac as Yuhanan, and becoming in
Latin Johannes - or John. So, foundations were laid for this hoaxed letter to
the Pope that made it believable.
Mandeville acted like a magnet for hoaxes, the same as UFOs do nowadays. This
distorts the whole picture. Giles Milton has pieced together the message that
Sir John was trying to give to his contemporaries, never matter that the travels
themselves might be hoaxes, the message seems to be genuine:
22.12 Mandeville’s Message
Mandeville’s book is split into two halves. In the first half of the book,
this is about the Holy Land is fairly familiar ground to pilgrim travellers who
made the effort in medieval times. Giles Milton reckons that Sir John was trying
to get the reader in this half of the books to identify with the pious pilgrim
of that half. After this half of the book, the second half of the book describes
outlandish savages, pagans etc., in unknown lands that gets weirder and weirder.
In doing this Sir John is throwing the spotlight back on the reader: showing the
reader’s version of reality to be a distortion, when seen by these other
cultures.  A similar effect was being achieved by Jonathan Swift in
Gulliver’s Travels, i.e. it was a criticism of the reader’s life style.
Sir John described these savages as far more pious than any Christian pilgrim
could ever be, forcing the reader to see his own life as an ugly reflection of
theirs. He even records a Moslem Sultan’s blistering attack on the lifestyle
of the Christians, showing that from the Muslim’s perspective the Christian
behaviour is not as pious, as Christians would like to believe. Giles Milton
notes that the overall message of Mandeville is that love should be extended
from just fellow Christians, to everyone : Muslims and pagans. As well as doing
this Mandeville says that circumnavigation of the world is possible, in a
believable way to the medieval mind set:
22.13 Mandeville’s evidence that the world can be circumnavigated
The importance of Mandeville’s book to medieval explorers, lay in the 175
lines in which Sir John explains why he believes it is possible to
circumnavigate the world. Sir John’s Travels dismiss centuries of the
Church’s teachings in a a characteristically down-to-earth anecdote and
‘proves’ the world is circumnavigable by telling a strange story of a man
who inadvertently travelled around it: 
I have often thought of a story I heard, when I was young of a worthy man of our
country who went once upon a time to see the world. he passed India and many
isles beyond India, where there are more than five thousand isles, and travelled
so far by land and sea, girdling the globe, that he found an isle where he heard
his own language being spoken.. He marvelled greatly, for he did not understand
how this could be. But I conjecture that he had travelled so far over land and
sea, circumnavigating the earth, that he had come to his own borders; if he had
gone a bit further, he would have come to his own district.
Such a story is not Mandeville’s only proof. He includes calculations based on
readings from the stars to demonstrate that the world is a globe, and suggests
that he himself would have continued around the world if he had found the
necessary ships. But most important of all is the theological proof that he
offers to support his theory. For while travelling in India he stumbles across a
tribe of pagans who, like Job in the Old Testament, have absolutely no knowledge
of Christianity, yet worship God in a pure and simple way. For Mandeville, this
is proof enough that God’s law operates on every part of the globe. And if God
is everywhere, it necessarily follows that man is able to travel everywhere and
that the only difficulties are practical ones. ‘So I say truly, ‘ he
concludes, ‘that a man could go all round the world, above and below, and
return to his own country, provided he had his health, good company, and a ship.
And all the way he would find men, lands, islands, cities and towns.’
It is difficult to know where Mandeville might have formulated his theory of
circumnavigation but there is every likelihood that the medieval records
indicating a John of sancto Albano studying at the University of Paris do indeed
refer to him. If so, he would have certainly come into contact with John Buridan,
who was central to these debates about the globe and had just put the finishing
touches to this important treatise on whether the whole world was habitable.
Sir John was not the first to hold views about the possibilities of
circumnavigation. But the writings by his contemporaries, in complex Latin, is
technical, academic and extremely dull. John Buridan’s treatise, too, is
weighty stuff. The work of his fellow academics is so obscure as to be largely
incomprehensible. What sir John does is make it all sound plausible, arguing his
point in a way that was accessible to the layman.
Sir John’s assertion that it was possible to circumnavigate the globe, and the
proof that he offered, had a profound effect on the young Christopher Columbus.
Columbus had long held the view that there was a quicker route to the riches of
the East than the long and dangerous overland journey... he delved into obscure
and apocryphal biblical texts looking for support of his theory that it was
possible to reach the riches of the east by sailing west.
Sir John Mandeville’s book The Travels inspired Columbus to go after the
riches of China and India, by trying to sail across the Atlantic. Columbus never
found he gold he so hungered for nor did he reach China although when his ship
finally touched land in 1492 he was convinced that he had proved Mandeville to
be right after all, recording that he was among ‘the islands which are set
down in the maps at the end of the Orient.’ He wasn’t. What Columbus never
realized, to his dying day, was that Mandeville’s Travels had led him to
Sir John gave a generation of explorers a justification, both theological and
practical, for setting out into the unknown. But the second point that Sir John
was making of tolerance was either misunderstood or ignored. within years of
discovering the new lands, settlers were colonising them and pagan natives that
Sir John describes with affection were being indiscriminately slaughtered.
22.14 The Mystery of Mandeville
My reading puts the interpretation that - there were too many objections raised
by learned people to the possibility of being able to circumnavigate the world,
in Sir John’s day. Some one hoaxed this book in the part about going to the
Far East, cobbled together from reports from what the few travellers that had
actually gone to the Far East, had reported. The intention was to get the
reasons why circumnavigation of the world was possible across to the greatest
possible public audience. The idea of circumnavigation was mocked in
intellectual circles, and intellectuals then lost their reputations if they
tried to pursue it. The book was presenting the case for circumnavigation to the
general public in the most straight forward simplest terms possible, without all
the intellectual complicated language that could distort the simplicity of the
Whoever Sir John was, he seems to have being trying to create hoax of a
traveller that had evidence that it was possible to circumnavigate the world
which the general public would pay attention to. But such a message was anti-
authority of the Pope in its day, because it went against status quo version of
beliefs. So, the author was presumably in fear of that? While the author was
engaged in a hoax to get what the author perceived as the truth taken seriously
by the general public, someone else seems to have been trying to create other
hoaxes. Sir John attracted other people's hoaxes on him?
The inheritance we have received from the Christanisiation of the Roman Empire,
has meant that certain theories get squashed by the establishment for various
political reasons. Certain intellectuals want to believe certain ideas for
unknown reasons personal to themselves and take all steps possible in
maintaining their ideas as the status quo. Hoaxing and other means, now seem a
part of that tradition. If certain evidence comes to light that is too contrary
to status quo beliefs, then it is subjected to ridicule and claimed to be a hoax
etc. If it survives this ridicule, what can then happen is similar evidence then
comes to light, but which turns out to be easily demonstrable as a a hoax. The
original evidence then gets ‘tarred with the same brush’ and status quo
beliefs are maintained. Are certain people engaging in hoaxing activities to
maintain status quo beliefs? Are certain people engaging in hoaxing activity to
destroy status quo theories? The answer seems to be that both types of people
exist, as well as people who just like to hoax for entertainment purposes of
seeing how gullible the general public is.
It leaves historians looking back at the past and squabbling over what is true
and what is hoaxes, and placing their interpretations on the past, based on
their present day beliefs. And their present day beliefs might themselves be the
product of being deceived into believing certain hoaxes. This is the ‘sad’
history that we have inherited.
Let’s look at another question of hoaxing in connection with ‘who discovered
22.15 Mounds in America
Feder talks about Mounds - earth works found in the Americas. He says that
artefacts were found in these mounds in the 19th century by Americans, these
artefacts had European alphabetic characters on them, such as Celtic, Greek etc.
He now dismisses all these artefacts as being obviously faked, he does not seem
to talk too much of scientific testing on all these objects. He seems to have
valid reasons for explaining away why the other 19th century evidence for
European mound building is wrong, but he seems to slip in the statement : the
artefacts are obviously fakes, because they look like fakes, without describing
In any case being sceptical, I wonder about ideas like - may be genuine
artefacts with European characters were found and then later substituted for
fakes. But never mind about that, for now.
Feder after saying the evidence for European mound building is all faked, then
explains that the reason there was so much of this archaeological forgery going
on in the 19 th century. He claims that it was because the forgers wanted
American people to believe that they were simply reclaiming their land (America)
back from the Indians, who had stolen it, i.e. justifying the bad behaviour of
the Americans against the Native Americans. 
Feder then tells us - Europeans that we should be ashamed about our behaviour in
the way we have so cruelly treated the Native Americans.
I believe Feder when he says that ‘we’ should be ashamed about what ‘we’
did to the Native Americans. But he seems to miss the main point: the reason why
Americans were treating the Native Americans so badly in the past, was because
some one was controlling the majority of peoples’ belief systems.
At the time, the Americans thought their actions were justified. And now from
our modern perceptive, archaeologists such as Feder are telling us that the
evidence that these Americans were working to was faked.
This I think is extremely astounding! It means that some unknown group had
organized itself to forge evidence so that it could control the majority of
peoples’ belief system.
Who was this mysterious group of forgers? How many such groups exist? And are
they in operation today?
These forgers control our beliefs, or seek to control our beliefs, and through
our beliefs then control our actions.
If some genuine phenomenon happens such as say ETI contact, and this group was
opposed to having the public believe such a phenomenon. All they have to do is
swamp the subject with forgeries of the ‘real’ thing. Then investigators
investigate all of these incidents, find explanations for most of them as
hoaxes, leaving a few anomalies that are argued to be forgeries as well. i.e..
hide the truth within blatant lies.
To control our beliefs, seems incredibly easy, if some unknown group has
organized itself to that end.
And what do we get from sceptics such as Feder who dismiss what he would think
as wild claims of ancient astronauts, we still get a wild claim from him, namely
of a conspiracy by something unknown. Both believers and sceptics then have a
common ground, they believe in the cover up. But both groups end up arguing over
what is covered up. Why argue over that? It is more vitally important, for both
groups to find out who is doing the covering up, because those who do the cover
up know the truth that they are hiding.
We cannot solve the UFO mystery, because since early times, some group (or
groups) within Europe has taken it upon themselves to hide certain truths from
the general public.
They appear to have hidden the knowledge of the Americas from the general
public, until Columbus rediscovered it. They have covered up other things.
It gives a whole new meaning to what the Catholic Church were doing when they
went to the Americas and started destroying everything they considered pagan.
The people doing the destroying were given the belief that what they were doing
was right. The unknown group that got the destroyers to believe what they were
doing was right, what did they believe? Who were they?
David Hatcher Childress reports a story that the Smithsonian Institute in
America, allegedly took a barge of unusual artefacts out into the Atlantic ocean
and dumped it.  (Childress makes other claims of cover up by the
Smithsonian.) I wonder if the people doing the dumping were under the impression
that they were dumping archaeological forgeries.
I also wonder if archaeologists like Feder, if told by his mentors -’oh that
artefact is a forgery dispose of it,’ would then willingly do as told, because
they believed what they were doing was right.
Who these forgers in archaeology are, I think is a more important subject to
pursue in UFOlogy, than trying to chase after the elusive genuine case that can
be 100 per cent proven to be genuine. Catching and cataloguing activities of
hoaxers is far easier, and eventually should lead to determining what the
hoaxers are trying to divert our attention from learning. Once we acquire an
understanding of how to definitively determine if a phenomenon is a hoax, we are
then able to look at other possible answers to the UFO mystery. It is only by
the elimination of all possible answers bar one, can we know the solution to a
How successful have hoaxers been in controlling our beliefs in the past? How are
they doing it today? What have we been tricked into believing, is really false?
And how much of what is true have we been tricked into believing is false?
Hoaxes can be more interesting thing to look at than searching for genuine
cases. Once we understand the nature of human hoaxers, we can ask whether there
are alien hoaxers. I thought it was supposed to be: you can fool some of the
people all the time, all of the people some of the time, but not be able fool
all the people all of the time.
It now seems to me that it is possible to fool pretty much all of the people all
of the time, because it is being organized. There is a pattern in these non- UFO
books of history undergoing many anomalous revisions. (And these anomalous
revisions of history seems to ensure that the solution to UFOs remains hidden.)
It also seems that it is easy for this unknown group to make people believe one
thing in one century, and change the belief system in the next. It seems that
‘they’ got the Americans to believe the mounds were built by Europeans in
the 19th century, because 'they' wanted the land cleared of Native Americans.
Now after having done such evil actions, ‘they’ want us to feel sorry about
what we have done, and change our beliefs again. Somewhere in all of this is
hidden the truth of what is really going on, and what is really our true
history. History is a lie, it keeps changing as our beliefs are changed by
whatever this ‘thing’ is.
We thus have definitive archaeological evidence for a cover up, both sceptics
(like Feder) and believers interpret archaeology in those terms. There is just
disagreement over what is covered up. As long as we continue to argue over what
is being covered up, and avoid looking for the hoaxers, we leave them to wander
freely around and continue their games on us.
I have looked further into the context of hoaxing and forgery in UFOlogy in the
present day, and found disturbing signs that there is a large sub culture of
people that are bored and like to engage in such activities as entertainment.
There is genuine UFO phenomenon occurring, but there is now a large group of
people going to the pub, and thinking of playing pranks. UFO investigation has
become increasing difficult, and will become more so as this group is growing.
I am becoming more and more discouraged with human nature, because of these
pranksters. And if there is an organized group of forgers, then they now have
plenty of places to hide behind this ‘pub’ sub culture.
History is arbitrarily decided upon by scholars and gets rewritten quite
regularly. What was believed in one century gets changed into something else in
the next century.
Mandeville has been largely written out of orthodox history, Columbus has been
given other reasons for why he took his journey. [ 43] It has taken a long time
for Columbus to get properly written into the orthodox history books. It was not
until 1892 that Columbus attained his modern status as a world hero. 
Columbus’s public eclipse for almost 300 years was due to squabbling over
money. He died complaining that he was cheated out of his money. People such as
the Prinzon brothers came forward who claimed that they deserved the real credit
for the discovery of the New World, that Columbus cheated etc. This meant
Columbus’s heirs were engaged in a lot of legal issues that took a lot of
sorting out, so that they could get Columbus’s money and proper recognition
due to him.  Where there is money involved there always seems a lot of
squabbling, causing different interpretations of history, creating an atmosphere
inviting hoaxes. Around Columbus there seems a great deal of hoaxing. Hunter
Davies notes that our view of what happened 500 years ago is different from a
view taken 400 years ago, and will be different when we later look back from 600
How many myths are there in the 20th century, that we now need to define
differently? There seem hoaxers that create hoaxes that have very important
influences on historical events. And other instances of scholars choosing to
label certain events as hoaxes, without sufficient justification. The results of
squabbling over what is hoax or true, leads to reinterpretation of historical
events. It is because of our human nature subverting the truth, that we cannot
know the truth, we end up just believing what some authority tells us, or get
tricked by some deception, or whatever. We end up most of the time believing in
myths, just because we are following whatever everyone else has been tricked
We are now in the 21st century and the time has started for historians to start
squabbling over what were the hoaxes in the 20th century. Was the UFO phenomenon
a hoax? Was it someone's attempts to make us believe that we were visited by
aliens? Or were we visited by aliens, and someone made hoaxed alien visitations,
at the same time ‘true’ alien visits were happening, so as to divert us away
from the truth? It may be that the UFO mystery will continue to be an ongoing
anomalous piece of history throughout the 21st century , and may require
historians looking back from the 22nd century to make judgements as to what is
truth and what is hoax?
The best guess I can find as an answer to how this sorry state of affairs has
come about in the Western civilization is the following course of events:
The Roman Empire was ruled by military superiority and allowed freedom of
different religious beliefs, so long as they did not interfere with the state.
Christians set themselves as superior to other religions, and were prepared to
die for religious beliefs and oppose earthly ruler etc., so were dangerous from
that perspective, plus they upset other religions by taking on stance of being
However with the fall of Rome’s military might, Rome needed another way to
keep control (or rather to try to keep control) and found the way was through
religion. Rome seems to have adopted the religion that would best keep people
under control. It was then ruling by a beliefs system, and was opposed to belief
systems that were different to it, because that was a threat to its authority,
thus started religious persecution of non conforming beliefs.
Constantinople was where the Roman Empire moved to for a while, and Constantine
incorporated pagan ideas into Christianity, because he saw it as part of his sun
Intellectuals must have seen through Christianity as presented to the ignorant
masses as being very naive. But they were no longer allowed the intellectual
freedom in the new Holy Roman Empire that they had once held in the past in the
old Roman Empire. Having to obey one belief system became a political issue,
because it was through this that control was now being made instead of through
If they wanted to disagree then they risked death, exile etc., and people in
general (especially the non intellectuals) were used to just obeying authority's
word for it rather than think for themselves, so it was very difficult to
persuade ordinary people that they were believing nonsense:
1. Ordinary people obeyed their authority without question like they were
2. Ordinary people were not used to independently thinking for themselves
3. If intellectuals tried to discuss anything with ordinary people, then they
risked being denounced as heretic etc.
There was no intellectual freedom of pursuing speculative ideas, as had been the
tradition from the ancient Greek philosophers.
Maybe such intellectuals were then reduced to hoaxing the authority? Trying to
show the common people that events that happened in the world did not conform to
the dictated beliefs system from authority?
Those in authority must have realized that there was a subversive element acting
against them causing hoaxes. But did not know who these subversives were. So may
be this inspired the witch hunts and the like, to get rid of these subversives,
it was deemed necessary to deal with people that were thought to be these
This tradition of hoax by one group and counter hoax by another group, has
carried on into the present day world, and we now have UFOs.
People are fighting over belief systems the same way they have always done ever
since the formation of Christianity, and probably before that. Hoaxing seems a
big part of this continuing fight over beliefs.
I am not saying that Christianity or any religion is bad, or that its the
Pope’s fault, or any other nonsense like that. The Pope has been subjected to
a large number of hoaxes such as the Prester John hoax. He has been a victim of
hoaxing like everyone else. When there is authority, there is fighting among
people as to having the power of that authority. Hopefully good people are
generally more in charge today, than the bad people. But it still remains the
same ‘old’ struggle of good against evil.
Christianity has done good and it has done bad, the same as any religion. On the
whole it seems to balance out more in the good than in the bad. But from the
roots of this history we have a bad tradition that has been opposed to gaining
knowledge. People have been struggling to have their personal beliefs as the
mainstream belief system of the masses for political reasons.
It is just unfortunate that Christians have been more gullible than most when
Christianity spread in the western world. Forgeries of holy relics and the like
were epidemic, and Christians appeared very ready to believe any evidence that
supported their beliefs. They were sceptical when evidence did not support their
beliefs, but when evidence supported their beliefs, they were not sceptical and
too readily accepted hoaxes.
As a result a lot of our two thousand years worth of historical beliefs are
based on hoaxed evidence, where we have often been deceived into believing lies.
It took a lot of effort by Galileo and others to break through the lies of
Ptomley. Once lies become accepted as the truth, there is a great deal of
resistance to having them exposed as lies.
This atmosphere has been against the pure spirit of scientific inquiry. Human
nature has added a corrupting effect on science.
In order to solve the UFO mystery, one needs to first know what is the correct
science. It is only from knowing the correct science, can one then decide what
is possible and what is not possible from theory. I have checked the history
behind 20th century science, and found it deeply flawed. A false interpretation
of history has been offered as justification for the false science of the 20th
I was amazed when I made this discovery, and very upset to find out that what
much of what I had believed to that point, was really lies. But looking at the
situation in the bigger context of the whole of Western history, the false
history of 20th century science fits into a large tradition of this human
activity of hoaxing. One likes to think that one lives in an age where things
are getting better, but the truth is - the same sort of muddling is going on,
the same as it has ever done, just that some people have become more skilled at
muddling, making it much harder to ‘see through the mess’ that they have
created. I am disappointed that Galileo and others managed to get through the
hoaxed lies of Ptomley, only for all that effort to be undone as science was
once again corrupted by human actions in the 20th century.
If the history science was taught correctly, then we could get our science
correct. The fictional Sherlock Holmes had some idea that if you eliminated the
impossible, then whatever remained was the truth no matter how improbable. Well
science is about telling us what is and is not possible. This ‘mess’ in
science is there to prevent us from solving the UFO mystery. If we had the
correct science, then we would have the means to find the UFO solution. Only
someone has managed to muddy the waters’ a great deal with ‘red herrings’,
and not allowed us to start with the correct foundations for a methodology.
In the gossip (non substantiated) rumours there is supposed to be secret UFO
bases in places like the remote areas of Brazil. David Hatcher Childress talks
of this idea in connection with unorthodox science of Tesla.  Unfortunately
he talks of many other possibilities, such as time travel. It is the ideas like
time travel that act as a type of smoke screen thrown. Without the correct
science we do not know if these ideas are more than speculation. i.e. cannot
assess their validity. It is this that has prevented us from saying what is
possible and what is impossible, thus preventing us from deducing the truth.
There seems a lot of UFO activity in Brazil, that Bob Pratt writes about. 
People there are being injured and killed by such activity. In countries like
America, there are some people that think the UFOnauts are friendly and are here
to protect us. But in Brazil, Bob Pratt reports that no one thinks in that way
about UFOs. It could be Brazil is a big base for UFO operators, and people there
can get too close to finding out the truth and are subsequently dealt with in
more harsh terms.
22.17 Further information
Timothy Freke and Peter Gandy’s book The Jesus Mysteries claims that Jesus
Christ was really a pagan cult based on mythology that became transformed into
the Christian religion that erroneously took those myths to be real historical
events. It seems that peoples' need to believe in a historical Jesus led to
hoaxing of evidence to support such a falsehood. It may be that this was when
Western civilization decided to adopt the habit of hoaxing so as to try to
rewrite history into a form that agrees with whatever beliefs that they wanted
What I particularly agree with Freke and Gandy is their point that whoever wins
a conflict then rewrites history to suit their beliefs. This process is
happening all the time, and I have found the same thing happening with respect
to Einstein. In 1925 he lost an argument with mainstream physicists, and the
mainstream physicists then decided to rewrite history etc., to match their
erroneous beliefs. Nowadays the inheritors of this tradition will have naturally
developed much more sophisticated methods.
There is a interesting book by Michael Baignet and Richard Leigh called The
Inquisition, that explains the methodology of how this certain group had been
able to impose its belief system on a large portion of Western people by the use
of fear, terror, torture etc. A sort of prototype Nazi group that was far more
successful. Nowadays the inheritors of this tradition will have naturally
developed much more sophisticated methods. Dr. Robert Becker, a pioneering
researcher, twice nominated for a Nobel prize reports that the conspiracy in
science to maintain the scientific dogma of the establishment theories is to
ridicule other contenders, withdraw their research funding and flood the media
with disinformation whenever there is a threat.  I think the great
Inquisitor Torquemada would have been pleased with how his craft has been
perfected from physical torture into the psychological realm. In a society that
has freedom of speech, and certain information is sensitive then disinformation
is the most natural weapon for those who have national security issues to
consider. If certain information gets too near to being the truth, then the
subject under discussion gets flooded with false information to divert
The book Ancient Inventions by Peter James and Nick Thorpe, is written by
respectable people in archaeology - they attack the ancient astronaut
hypothesis, and lay the foundations for a bigger case for the existence of very
advanced lost human civilizations. But I think you can protest such a stance too
much, and end up with the possibility that humans are alien visitors to this
planet. Peter James is a professional writer on ancient history and archaeology.
Dr. Nick Thorpe, an archaeologist in prehistory. The blurb says:
"A popular misconception exists that the builders of the pyramids or the
cave painters were somehow less intelligent than we are. This simply isn’t
true: there is no evidence that the human brain has evolved at all in the last
fifty thousand years, at least."
On page xvii they talk of a mistaken view of history best described as
temporocentrism -the belief that our own time is the most important and
represents a "pinnacle" of achievement. The temporocentric view is a
hangover from 19th century ideas of progress. The result of a crude version of
Darwinian evolution, where there is always progression upwards never backwards.
This has led to many misinterpretations of the archaeological evidence for
ancient technological and cultural achievements. James and Thorpe talk of
archaeological evidence that has been often dismissed as hoaxes, but is really
evidence of how clever ancient man was.
Anyway, hoaxing seems to be ‘big’ business by some one. First these people
try to destroy the true account (e.g. Christians destroying the records at the
Alexandrian Library), next they try to replace it by a hoax, and finally they
pretend that the ‘true’ history is a hoax, so ‘we’ end up totally
confused about our history. It’s like something were trying to ‘wipe out our
past’, preventing us from learning from our mistakes, so as to force us to
make the same mistakes again and again. The history around which the UFO mystery
sits seems subject to a very big reassessment at the moment by many people that
are studying history. Major new perspectives seem to be on the horizon.
 Ancient Inventions by Peter James and Nick Thorpe, Michael O’Mara books,
UK 1995, p 61
 Ancient Inventions by Peter James and Nick Thorpe, p 62 - 63.
 Mathematics in The Western Culture, Morris Kline, Penguin USA original 1953,
my copy 1979, p 109 - 110.
 Every now and then you hear something about Romans or whoever having been in
America. For instance Daily Mail Feb. 10, 2000 p 25 Did Roman Explorers discover
America 1300 years ahead of Christopher Columbus by David Derbyshire: A
terracotta head unearthed from a burial site in Mexico was made by a Roman
craftsman in 200 AD. The rest is squabbled over, as to how to interpret.
 Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings: evidence of advanced civilization in the Ice
Age By Professor Charles Hapgood- subjects Piri Re’is map of 1513 to scrutiny.
Rejected by academics in its day due to temporocentric prejudices.
 Mathematics in Western culture, Morris Kline, Penguin, USA, 1979, original
1953, p 109 -110.
 Frauds, Myths and Mysteries by Kenneth L Feder, second edition, Mayfield
Publishing company, USA, 1990, my copy 1996-very sceptical author, denouncing
the ancient astronaut hypothesis, but protests too much. p 74
 ibid. p 73
 The Riddle and the Knight: In search of Sir John Mandeville, by Giles
Milton,Allison and Busby UK, 1997, p 217.
 ibid. p 218.
 ibid. p 218
 ibid. p 218
 Encyclopedia Britannica vol. 14, USA 1971, p 828.
 Ancient Inventions p 67 - 70
 Britannica vol. 14 p 829.
 Britannica vol. 14 p 829.
 The Book of Hoaxes. Stuart Gordon, Headline UK 1995, p 248 and The Crime of
Claudius Ptolemy, Robert Newton, John Hopkins University Press 1977.
 Greek Science in Antiquity, Marshall Clagett, Collier Books NY 1955, my
copy 1963, p 102.
 Greek and Roman Technology: a source book by John W Humphrey, John P Oleson,
and Andrew N Sherwood, Routledge, London, 1998 p 5 - 7 : Plato, Laws: 3.677a -
 The Riddle and the Knight - blurb
 ibid. p 3
 Columbus for gold, God and glory by John Dyson and Peter Christopher,
Madison Press, Canada 1991 says: there can be little doubt that Norwegian
Vikings ... landed in North America and lived there briefly before being chased
off by Indians, at least 5 centuries before Columbus set sail.
Standard history books sometimes just causally mention that Vikings went to
North America, like: History of the World by Plantagenet Somerset Fry, Dorling
Kindersley UK 1994, p 126.
 The Hiram Key by Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas, Century UK, 1996 p
79: refer to freemasons in Scotland, and American plant imagery on the Scottish
Chapel Rosslyn, put there before Columbus’s voyage. May be the information
came from Vikings, so that there is no need for some of the elaborate
freemasonry ideas that Knight and Lomas weave, or is there?
 The Riddle and the Knight p 4 - 5
 ibid. p 6-8, p 43
 ibid. p 43 - p 44
 ibid. p 44 and p 49
 ibid. p 49
 Encyclopedia Britannica, vol. 14., USA , 1971, p 772.
 The Riddle and the Knight p 52 -p 53
 ibid. p 54.
 ibid. p 82
 ibid. p 83 - 85
 ibid. p 123
 ibid. p 123 - 124, p 126
 ibid. p 199 - p201.
 ibid. p 203 - 4.
 ibid. p 20 5 - 207
 ibid. p 210 - 211
 ibid. p 217 - p 223
 Frauds, Myths and Mysteries p 135
 Suppressed Inventions and other discoveries by Jonathan Eisen, Avery
publishing group, USA 1999: Archaeological cover ups by David Hatcher Childress
 In Search of Columbus by Hunter Davies, Sinclair Stevenson, UK, 1991, see p
34 - 43 for some of these reasons.
 ibid. p 286
 ibid. p 281 - 282
 ibid. p xi
 The Fantastic Inventions of Nikola Tesla by Nikola Tesla, additional
material by David Hatcher Childress, Adventures Unlimited, USA, 1993, talks of
flying saucer base created in Brazil by Marconi, using Tesla technology.
 UFO Danger zone, by Bob Pratt, Horus House Press, USA 1996 - Bob Pratt was
a sceptic until he investigated the facts about UFOs.
 Cross Currents by Robert O Becker, Jeremy P Tarcher, USA, 1990 p 299- 300.
 Roger Joseph Boscovich S.J., F.R.S., 1711 - 1787 on the 250th Anniversary
of his birth, edited by Lancelot Law Whyte, published by George Allen and Unwin,
UK 1961 p 105
 ibid p 121-2
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